R&D Articles

Brucellosis: A dairy farmer’s guide

Compiled by Dr Mark Chimes On behalf of Milk SA, Feb 2023

Brucellosis is highly contagious and occurs in all nine provinces of South Africa. The main source of infection is cattle. The main route of infection in humans is through the consumption of unpasteurised milk. Although the primary symptom noticed in dairy herds is abortion, brucellosis is NOT a venereal disease. Brucellosis is primarily transmitted through ingestion of the organism (oral route).

Brusellose: ’n Gids vir Melkboere

Saamgestel deur Dr Mark Chimes Namens Melk SA, Feb 2023

Brusellose, oftewel Besmetlike Misgeboorte, is hoogs aansteeklik en kom voor in al nege provinsies van Suid-Afrika. Die hoofbron van infeksie is beeste. Die hoofroete van infeksie by mense is deur die verbruik van ongepasteuriseerde melk. Alhoewel aborsies die primêre simptoom is wat opgemerk word in melkkuddes, is brusellose NIE ’n geslagsiekte nie. Brusellose word hoofsaaklik oorgedra deur die inname van die organisme (mondelinge roete).

The global impact of cattle: A socio-economic, food security and environmental perspective

Heinz Meissner, James Blignaut, Hendrik Smith and Linde Du Toit, 2022

Cattle have been the focus of an intense debate between those concerned about the possible negative effects on global warming, land degradation, food competition and human health, and those who are positive toward the possible role of cattle in maintaining global socio-economic and environmental sustainability. Here we reviewed the pros and cons in view of a projected increase in demand for animal-based foods and therefore in cattle numbers.

Psychrotrophic Bacteria and Biofilms in the Dairy Industry

Prof P J Jooste, June/July 2020


  • Definitions and basic concepts relating to psychrotrophic bacteria and biofilm formation
  • Psychrotrophic bacteria in South African raw milk supplies
  • Problems caused by the occurrence of biofilms from the dairy farm to the processing plant
  • Monitoring for psychrotrophic bacteria and biofilms in the dairy industry
  • Reducing contamination throughout the dairy manufacturing chain: potential solutions

Extended shelf life milk processing: Effect of simulated cleaning in place on the germination and attachment of Bacillus cereus spores

Chan E Pretorius and Elna Maria Buys, 2020

The effect of simulated cleaning in place (CIP) was determined on the structure, attachment and growth of Bacillus cereus spores isolated from raw milk and biofilms in filler nozzles from extended shelf life (ESL) milk processing lines. Simulated CIP treatment structurally affected >98% of B. cereus spores, while 0.1% remained intact. Following simulated CIP treatment, B. cereus spores were able to attach to stainless steel coupons and form biofilms. B. cereus spores were capable of germination and growth under refrigerated conditions for more than 28 days. Contamination with B. cereus spores may lead to a reduced shelf life and potentially be a safety risk in ESL milk with a prolonged shelf life.